True Status of Housing in India (2010-2030)

Sujan Afi S

Introduction

Incredible India! A land of great rishis, a land of great warriors, kings, politicians, the birthplace of innumerable poets and artists! Would you not like to know the present scenario of India? Don’t you feel like to know something more about your dear brothers and sisters? If you are interested then hold my hand; let’s have a walk through the streets of our own land.  

India is progressing. With the intervention of several schemes of the government, the economic growth of India is conspicuously visible. As there is economic development, the people are getting the opportunity to be independent. They are trying to buy houses because houses symbolise a sense of peace and security. Naturally, the Real Estate market is progressing at a fast pace. 

The housing market of India is recorded to be one of the fastest growing Real Estate sectors. The growth of this sector is well complemented by the growth of the economic sectors of India. According to Census of India data, the houseless population of India is continuously decreasing. For instance, the census of India (1971) data reveals that the houseless population in India was 36/10,000 population, while it was 15/10,000 population in the census year 2011. This indicates that the expansion rate of the housing market is quite high in India. 

Another important point to be considered is the ownership of the house. The Census of India (2011) data suggests that around 95 percent of people in rural India have their own house; on the other hand, it is only around 69 percent in urban areas. There are a number of factors playing important roles behind the larger proportion of the homeless population and rented population in India, such as economic factors, social factors, migration, natural disasters, etc. Social factors like ostracizing a family from the society/neighbourhood due to wrongdoings, communal riots, etc. make people homeless, especially in rural areas. The World Bank report suggests a continuous increase in GDP per capita in India. In the year 2011, it was around 1458 US $ and in the year 2019, it was 2100 US $. However, due to Covid-19 pandemic situation it has decreased in the year 2020 and is recorded to be 1900 US $. 

Keeping with the economic condition of India, the housing market got influenced significantly. There are various government scheme like PMAY, PMGAY, RAY etc. that operate to ensure pucca house for every Indian citizen who come under the schemes. Due to covid-19 pandemic and related decline in the economic status of India, these schemes are not being operated properly at present. But it is expected that after the pandemic is under control, the economic progression will continue at a higher rate; it will promote the housing market in India by 2030.

An important factor responsible for huge homeless population and rented population in urban India (in comparison to rural India) is migration. Due to the unequal economic growth rate and uneven distribution of opportunity and wealth between the rural and urban areas, a large proportion of rural population is forced to migrate in urban areas and live without house or in rented house. The Census of India (2011) data suggests that around 96 percent households in India have at least one home (including pucca house, kutcha house and slum households). Besides, it is observed that around 37 percent households in India have only one dwelling room. This highlights that the probability of the growth of housing market is quite high keeping relations with economic progress. People are forced to live in one room mainly due to poor economic condition of the family. Hence, if there is economic prosperity, it will also enhance the housing status; consequently, there will be an increase the housing market of India. 

The proportion of households having multiple properties is not quite high in India. Nevertheless, it is expected that with the progress of time the proportion of households having multiple properties will be continuously increasing. The people belonging to the higher strata of the society have multiple properties. Some of the middle-class people have inherited their ancestral home besides buying a house on their own. 

It is to be noted that economic development, political stability, fall of Total Fertility Rate (TFR), breakdown of joint family system etc. have important role to play behind the households having multiple properties. The TFR of India is 2.4 in the census year 2011. This highlights a slightly higher level of TFR than replacement level (TFR 2.1) of India in the year 2011. The continuous fall of TFR suggests that by the year 2030 the TFR of India might be even below the replacement level. The low level of TFR (below replacement level) will slower down the growth of population and along with the higher economic growth rate the housing status of Indian households will progress.

According to Census of India (2011) data and National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2015-16, roughly one in six families were able to move from a kutcha to a pucca house in the five years between 2011 and 2016. This highlights the dark side of housing market in India. Nevertheless, as the government of India is bringing several schemes for the betterment of the people, it is evident that the housing status will eventually get better in the upcoming years. With this positive note let’s wind up the article. It is hoped that you have got a rough idea about the housing condition of India and its intimate relationship with the economic status of the people. If you want to know more about such interesting topics, visit our official website. Roodland India also provides you a dedicated group to address to your queries regarding houses, loans, land property, and the like. In case of any query, you can contact us as info@roodland.com.

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